The Korean capital Seoul faces a severe parking problem in its low-rise neighbourhoods. Altogether, around 80 % of the city's three million parking violations per year take place in these areas. One reason is that, in contrast to higher density areas, there are few car parks, including underground garages, while the available on-street parking spaces are largely reserved for residents. Residents are entitled to use their allocated parking space at all hours of the day, which effectively excludes others from using these spaces even if they are free.
Traffic and demand management refers to measures such as parking management, reallocating urban space in favour of sustainable modes of transport (including shared space), access controls, road pricing, and traffic signal control strategies.