The topic of pricing is wide. Given the volume of existing material, this material summarises the topic and then focuses on one element of it which has been of particular relevance in terms of EU research and development: road pricing. This material will provide an understanding of the basic knowledge and theory of road pricing. It demonstrates how road-use pricing can be done practically using case studies, such as the Norwegian toll rings and the Singapore's electronic road-pricing scheme. Results from EU-fundedn technical projects are also examined to understand the key issues in pricing.
In this training material the special characteristics of freight transport in urban areas or in municipal metropolitan areas are explained. As transport chains typically constitute
ta unity, and cross geographical borders of metropolitan areas, an examination of urban freight transport is not possible. Therefore, the following material covers the complete transport chain.
Freight transport in urban areas is often brought together with the concept of 'city logistics'. City logistics, in the sense of supplying city centres with goods (in the form of freight), is a part of the theme dealt with here. However, freight transport in urban areas includes much more than only the maintenance and disposal from city centres.