Mobility management and more specific Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans (SUMPs) are still a fairly new concept of mitigating transport-related problems in Denmark. However, since the 1990s there has been a strong focus within urban planning on traffic and environment, and a long tradition of citizen involvement in the planning process (also local Agenda 21), which supports the dissemination of SUMPs in Denmark. These trends are supported by a growing concern and actions to prevent the negative effects of climate change, resulting in a growing focus on mobility management and SUMPs.
The majority of large cities in Denmark - Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Odense, Aalborg and Esbjerg - have a SUMP. Smaller cities like Gladsaxe and Furesoe also have plans. Four to five years after their first plans, Odense and Copenhagen have now prepared second versions and are implementing them. The plans are diverse. Some focus on strategy and technical measurements, and a few concentrate on all aspects of the SUMP process.
The population of the cities with a SUMP varies from 38 000 (Furesoe, a suburb of Copenhagen) to 600 000 (City of Copenhagen). The geographic area varies from 9 km2 to 740 km2. Roskilde municipality has prepared mobility plans for smaller parts of the municipality: a greenfield area, an urban area under development and a plan for the town centre.
Since 2014 other cities have started to develop SUMPs: North Djurs, South Djurs, Ballerup, Roskilde, and Elsinore. They are all in different stages of ‘Prepare Well’ and ‘Goal Setting’ – the first two phases of SUMP development described in the SUMP Guidelines. These cities have approximately 50 000 inhabitants and areas of 34 km2 to 800 km2, with larger municipalities located in more rural areas.
SUMPs are primarily prepared by traffic and city planners, while private consultants contribute to elements like the analysis of the current situation, scenarios, and handle some of processes that involve citizens.
Currently, the two predominant trends in Denmark are ‘liveable cities’ and ‘energy efficiency’, which represent unique opportunities to support policies and actions that primarily promote alternatives to fossil fuel options for car travel.
SUMPs are not identified as a specific policy instrument in Danish guidance documents. Some relevant documents/actions are: