Zrównoważona mobilność miejska obejmuje liczne odrębne zagadnienia i dziedziny. W tej sekcji zamieściliśmy listę z opisami wszystkich tematów poruszanych na stronie Eltis.
Autonomous and connected vehicles
Autonomous vehicles are rapidly becoming a reality on European roads and can range from self-driving vehicles to those that provide early hazard warning and avoidance. The deployment of autonomous vehicles will lead to changes to policy, the legal framework – and a shift in public perception.
The COVID-19 pandemic presents a serious threat to public health and as a result, lockdowns and other coordinated restrictive measures have become necessary in order to save lives. Mobility is at the heart of many of these measures as essential workers must be able to continue to access their place of work, whilst others have been asked - or required - to stay at home to prevent the spread of the virus.
Clean and energy-efficient vehicles
Clean and energy-efficient vehicles, such as hybrid/electric buses and cars, aim to reduce greenhouse and other pollutant emissions, fuel consumption and fossil fuel dependency.
Exhaust gas treatment systems, alternative drive trains and the use of alternative fuels and energy storage systems can improve the environmental record of vehicles. Besides technical interventions, promotional and procurement initiatives can accelerate the uptake of low-emission vehicles.
Collective passenger transport
Besides public transport such as rail, metro, tram and bus networks, collective passenger transport also covers car-sharing, car-pooling and flexible mobility services such as train-taxi schemes and demand-responsive transport in areas of low demand.
Improvements to public transport services may address public transport vehicles and related infrastructure, as well as management techniques.
Intermodal transport refers to the use of at least two different modes of transport during one door-to-door journey. The level of integration in terms of ownership, operation or usability is an important aspect of intermodality. Improving intermodal transport requires the development of seamless integrated transport chains.
Mobility management refers to the promotion of sustainable transport. At the core of mobility management are 'soft' awareness-raising measures like information, communication and marketing campaigns. Mobility management measures do not necessarily require large financial investments and may provide cities with good value for money.
Monitoring and evaluation
Urban mobility measures should be monitored and evaluated to understand how they work and perform. This helps cities identify problems and areas for improvement, and record elements that have been a success.
A good monitoring and evaluation system will inform project reports and provide useful data to stakeholders on the urban mobility situation in their city.
Policy and research
The process of developing policy generally involves research, analysis, consultation and synthesis of information to produce recommendations. Guidelines can help cities develop and assess their transport policies to address existing and new policy objectives. Research organisations and institutions provide valuable data and analysis to underpin policy recommendations and decisions.
Public and stakeholder involvement
Effective policies and measures require the involvement and ownership of stakeholders, including the wider public. A strategy that includes the public and stakeholders can help cities undertake effective reviews and host discussions that can strengthen urban mobility plans and enable greater chances of success.
Quality, audits and benchmarking
Pursuing a quality management approach is not only necessary, but will help cities develop and implement better transport policies.
Good transport planning is informed by reference to good practice elsewhere. Auditing and benchmarking help cities compare their plans and performance against that of others - not in a spirit of competition, but rather one of continuous improvement.
Safety and urban mobility
As active travel becomes more popular in Europe, the way in which urban spaces are being used is changing. Safety and urban mobility includes the ways in which practitioners seek to ensure the safety of all road and public space users – incorporating all modes of urban travel.
Appraisals of urban mobility schemes are crucial to assess the expected benefits of particular schemes, determine their suitability to meet policy objectives and to prioritise them.
Shared mobility refers to the shared use of a vehicle, bicycle, or other transportation modes.
It is a transportation strategy that allows users to access transportation services on an as-needed basis. Shared mobility is an umbrella term that encompasses a variety of transportation modes including carsharing, bike-sharing, peer-to-peer ridesharing, on-demand ride services, micro transit, and other modes.
Traffic and demand management
Traffic and demand management refers to measures such as parking management, reallocating urban space in favour of sustainable modes of transport (including shared space), access controls, road pricing, and traffic signal control strategies.
Transport for people with reduced mobility
Planners, policy makers and transport providers need to ensure accessibility for passengers with specific needs such as people with disabilities or senior citizens. This may include measures to ensure the accessibility of public transport or specific services such as 'dial-a-ride' schemes.
Urban freight/city logistics
City logistics comprise the delivery and collection of goods in urban areas. Improving city logistics may address transportation methods, handling and storage of goods, management of inventory, waste and returns, as well as home delivery services.
Making this process sustainable requires efficient interfaces between long-haul transport and short-distance distribution to the final destination. It also requires efficient planning of the routes to avoid empty runs or unnecessary driving and parking. Furthermore, sustainable urban freight requires smaller, more efficient and cleaner vehicles.
Urban mobility planning
Good planning helps choosing and designing the right measures, or packages of measures, for a city’s particular transport context, and getting them off the ground.
A Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan (SUMP) – a strategic plan designed to satisfy the mobility needs of people and businesses in cities and their surroundings for a better quality of life - can play a big role in this regard. To discover more about these plans, visit the dedicated Mobility Plans section on Eltis.
Urban Vehicle Access Regulations
Urban vehicle access regulations (UVARs) is a form of traffic management that regulates access in specific urban locations according to vehicle type, age, emissions category – or other factors such as time of day, or day of the week. UVARs can include Low Emission Zones (LEZs) and/ or Congestion Charging and involve a wide range of considerations in implementation.
Urban vehicle access regulations are becoming an increasingly popular method of managing vehicle flows through urban areas.
Walking and cycling
Walking and cycling are the cleanest and most efficient forms of transport, particularly suited for short to moderate distances. Both provide numerous benefits. They improve health, do not produce air or noise pollution and help to reduce congestion.
Introducing cycling infrastructure (e.g. bike lanes, bike parking and hire schemes) are ways in which cities can promote cycling, while creating pedestrian-friendly spaces can promote commuting, shopping and recreation.