Definition – A stakeholder is an individual, group or organisation that is affected by a proposed plan or project or that can affect the proposal and its implementation. This includes the general public (see citizen and community groups), public authorities, businesses and research institutions.
Analysis of stakeholder constellations (also known as stakeholder mapping) helps to find out what the objectives of each stakeholder are, what their hidden agendas are, and whether they regard themselves as winners or losers if a certain project is implemented. Related terms include:
- Influence-interest matrix – A mapping tool that clusters stakeholders with regard to whether they have a low or high stake in the outcome of a proposal and whether they have a weak or strong influence on the proposal
- Opponent – A stakeholder that opposes a proposal or course of action
- Proponent or supporter – a stakeholder that approves of and encourages a proposal or course of action
- Veto player – a stakeholder with the power to stop a change from the status quo – e.g. block a new SUMP or measure from being implemented
Relevance to SUMP – Public authorities should identify key actors and stakeholders, which will inform the approach to participation and preparation of a stakeholder and citizen involvement strategy. Typical stakeholders are transport operators, traffic police and the emergency services, local businesses, retailers, utility providers, environmental NGOs, citizens, universities, etc. (see also key stakeholder).
Source: Oxford Dictionaries (online)