Ref 1: Throughout this document the term “Sustainable Urban Mobility Planning” refers to the process of planning, while “Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan” (or SUMP) is the essential (but not the only) outcome of the planning process. The abbreviation “SUMP” is used for the plan itself, terms like “SUMP concept” or “SU MP process” are used for differentiation. Both pronunciations are in use: “sump” (/sʌmp/) as well as “S.U.M.P.”
Ref 2: Rupprecht Consult, Guidelines. Developing and Implementing a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan (2013); www.eltis.org/mobility-plans.
Ref 3: The origins of SUMP go back to Thematic Strategy on the Urban Environment (see COM(2005) 718) which proposed the preparation of guidelines for Sustainable Urban Transport Plans; see also the first guidance document by the PILOT project (2007), www.rupprecht-consult.eu/uploads/tx_rupprecht/ Pilot_EN_WEB.pdf.
Ref 4: COM(2013) 91.
Ref 5: Workshops have been organised by Rupprecht Consult, as well as the other city network partners of SUMPs-Up (ICLEI, EUROCITIES, Polis, Union of Baltic Cities), the International Association of Public Transport (UITP), and partners in SUMP-related projects (PROSPERITY, SUITS, LOW-CARB).
Ref 6: Guidance for UK Local Transport Plans, French Plans de Déplacements Urbains, German Verkehrsentwicklungspläne, Swedish TRAST, and Italian Piano Urbano della Mobilità.
Ref 7: Formal peer reviews were provided by Prof Peter Jones, Professor of Transport and Sustainable Development, University College London (UK); Prof Anthony D May OBE FREng, Emeritus Professor of Transport Engineering, Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds (UK); Frank Wefering, Director of Sustainability (Greenman-Pedersen, Inc.), New York (USA). In addition, representatives of the European organisations have provided valuable comments throughout the preparation process: European Commission (Directorates-General Mobility and Transport; Regional and Urban Policy), European Investment Bank/ Jaspers Programme. and from organisations and individuals involved in the SUMP Coordination Platform. Special thanks are also due to Thomas Durlin, Cerema; Caroline Mattsson, Trivector; Ivo Cré, Polis; Tom Rye, Edinburgh Napier University, who have provided extensive comments to draft versions of this document.
Building on the Thematic Strategy on the Urban Environment (2005), and the Green Paper on Urban Mobility (2007), the Action Plan on Urban Mobility (2009) proposed ‘twenty measures to encourage and help local, regional and national authorities in achieving their goals for sustainable urban mobility’; the first action was ‘Accelerating the take-up of sustainable urban mobility plans’. The Transport White Paper formulated concrete targets for urban transport to contribute to strategic global and European policy goals.
Ref 9: COM(2013) 913.
Ref 10: Rupprecht Consult, Guidelines. Developing and Implementing a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan (2013); www.eltis.org/mobility-plans.
Ref 11: COM(2013) 913, p. 2.
Ref 12: This section draws strongly on Annex 1 of the Urban Mobility Package (COM(2013) 913).
Ref 13: OECD, Definition of Functional Urban Areas (FUA) for the OECD metropolitan database, 2013, p. 2. www.oecd.org/cfe/regional-policy/Definition-of-Functional- Urban-Areas-for-the-OECD-metropolitan-database.pdf.
Ref 14: European Environment Agency, 2018. Air quality in Europe - 2018 report, www.eea.europa.eu/publications/air-quality-in-europe-2018.
Ref 15: European Environment Agency, 2019. Emissions of the main air pollutants in Europe. Fig. 2: Emissions of the main air pollutants by sector group in the EEA- 33, www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/main-anthropogenic-air- pollutant-emissions/assessment-4.
Ref 16: Sergio Fernández Balaguer, Municipal Transport Company of Madrid, interview by the authors, March 04, 2019.
Ref 17: Le projet Mobilités 2020/2025/2023 - Valant révision du Plan de Déplacements Urbains de la grande agglomération toulousaine, 2018.
Ref 18: Tartu Linnavalitsus, 2018. Tartu heade mõtete linn, Tartu linna ja lähiümbruse liikuvusuuring, www.tartu.ee/sites/default/files/research_import/2018-12/Tartu_ LU_aruanne.pdf.
Ref 19: Spotathome, 2019. The world’s healthiest cities. Which cities are the best for healthy living?, www.spotahome.com/healthiest-cities-world.
Ref 20: ETSC PIN Report (2019) Safer roads, safer cities: how to improve urban road safety in the EU.
Ref 21: European Commission (2019) EU Road Safety Policy Framework 2021-2030 Next Steps Towards ”Vision Zero”.
Ref 22: Kalenkiewicz, E., Bisak, A., 2017. Zarzad Dróg Miejskich w Warszawie, Raport o stanie bezpieczenstwa 2017, https://zdm.waw.pl/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/ raport-zdm-web-1_1528982930.pdf.
Ref 23: Dr. Paolo Campus, Area Pianificazione Mobilità Milano, interview by the authors, 08 March, 2019.
Ref 24: CERTU, 2013. 30 years of sustainable urban mobility plans (PDU) in France, www.cerema.fr/system/files/documents/2017/11/1304_Fiche30ansPDU_EN_ cle6c8317.pdf.
Ref 25: Sándor Nagy, vice mayor of Szeged, interview by the authors, 11 March, 2019.
Ref 26: Dr. Paolo Campus, Area Pianificazione Mobilità Milano, interview by the authors, 08 March, 2019.
Ref 27: Budapest Mobility Plan 2014-2030, Vol. 1 Objectives and Measures, pp 12-15.
Ref 28: Máté Lénárt, BKK Centre for Budapest Transport, interview by the authors, 05 April, 2019.
Ref 29: CERTU, 2013. 30 years of sustainable urban mobility plans (PDU) in France, www.cerema.fr/system/files/documents/2017/11/1304_Fiche30ansPDU_EN_ cle6c8317.pdf.
Ref 30: Centre for Transport Studies, 2017. The Swedish Congestion Charges: Ten Years On, p 21, www.transportportal.se/swopec/CTS2017-2.pdf.
Ref 31: Dr. Paolo Campus, Area Pianificazione Mobilità Milano, interview by the authors, 08 March, 2019.
Ref 32: The Economist Intelligence Unit, 2018. The Global Liveability Index 2018 www. eiu.com/public/thankyou_download.aspx?activity=download&campaignid=liveab ility2018.
Ref 33: Mattias Kärrholm, 2012. Retailising Space: Architecture, Retail and the Territorialisation of Public Space, Ashgate: Farnham and Burlington, VT, p 44.
Ref 34: Ayuntamiento de Madrid, 2019. 20 millones de transacciones comerciales confirman el aumento del gasto en Navidad tras la implantación de Madrid Central, https://diario.madrid.es/blog/notas-de-prensa/20-millones-de-transacciones- comerciales-confirman-el-aumento-del-gasto-en-navidad-tras-la-implantacion- de-madrid-central/.
Ref 35: Municipal Arad, 2017.Planul de Mobilitate Urbană Durabilă al Municipiului Arad, pp 288-289.
Ref 36: Eliasson, J., 2014. The Stockholm congestion charges: an overview. Centre for Transport Studies Stockholm, p. 34, www.transportportal.se/swopec/cts2014-7.pdf.
Ref 37: Transport & Mobility Leuven, 2018. Evaluatie Circulatieplan Gent, https://stad.gent/sites/default/files/page/documents/Evaluatierapport%20Circulatieplan%20 Gent_0.pdf.
Ref 38: Marjolein Salens, City of Antwerp, interview with the authors, 13 March 2019
Ref 39: Máté Lénárt, BKK Centre for Budapest Transport, interview by the authors, 05 April, 2019
Ref 40: Marjolein Salens, City of Antwerp, interview with the authors, 13 March 2019
Ref 41: See guidebook on ‘How to develop a Sustainable Energy and Climate Action Plan’ by Joint Research Centre; www.empowering-project.eu/en/new-guidebook-on-how-to-develop-a-sustainable-energy-and-climate-action-plan-secap/
Ref 42: See forthcoming CIVITAS SATELLITE document on “game changers”.
Ref 43: See ‘SUMPs-Up status report (2018)’ for a more detailed description of barriers and needs.
Ref 44: https://ec.europa.eu/transport/themes/urban/vehicles/directive_en.
Ref 45: Durlin, A., Plevnik, A., Balant, M., Mladenovič, L., 2018. The Status of SUMPs in EU member states, http://sumps-up.eu/publications-and-reports/.
Ref 46: This aspect is described in detail in Chapter 1.4 Sustainable Urban Mobility Planning in practice.
Ref 47: Czepkiewicz, M., Brudka, C., Jankowski, P., Kaczmarek, T., Zwolinski, Z.,Mikuła, Ł, Bąkowska-Waldmann, E., Mlodkowski, M., Wójcicki, M., (2016). Public Participation GIS for Sustainable Urban Mobility Planning: methods, applications and challenges. Rozwój Regionalny i Polityka Regionalna, 35. 9-35.
Ref 48: To avoid confusion, it should be noted that some planners use scenarios later in the planning process, in the sense of measure or policy scenarios. This aspect, where different combinations of measures are assessed to identify the best way to achieve objectives and targets, is called measure package appraisal in this document (see Activity 7.2).
Ref 49: Eltis SUMP glossary, 2015, www.eltis.org/glossary
Ref 50: For more information see for example Transport for London, 2017. Land value capture, final report. www.london.gov.uk/sites/default/files/land_value_capture_report_transport_for_london.pdf