Urban mobility planning in Italy is based on two main plans: PUTs and PUMs. The PUT (Piano Urbano del Traffico – or Urban Traffic Plan) was introduced in 1986 and made mandatory by the 1992 Highway Code for municipalities with over 30 000 inhabitants or municipalities affected by seasonal tourist or commuter flows. It is two-year management plan mainly focussed on optimising traffic circulation on the existing road network. It may include and co-ordinate other ‘sectorial’ plans like the Parking Urban Program, the Plan of Bicycle Lanes and the Urban Plan for Road Safety.
The PUM (Piano Urbano della Mobilità – or Urban Mobility Plan) was introduced by Law 340/2000: it is not mandatory, but it is identified as a fundamental prerequisite for all municipalities or conurbations with populations over 100 000 in order to receive national funds to co-finance mobility projects (up to 60 per cent of total investments). A PUM is defined as a 10-year systematic and integrated planning instrument for managing mobility in urban areas, including infrastructural measures on public and private transport.
For a long time the only urban mobility plan that was widely implemented in Italy was a PUT as it was the only instrument made compulsory by law. Most big Italian cities are recently beginning to adopt also PUMs. PUMs are consistent with the Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan (SUMP) concept. But in Italian practice they are generally referred to the administrative boundaries of the single municipality, and not to the functional agglomeration as suggested by the SUMP Guidelines. Under the framework of the European project Endurance, an observatory about Italian SUMPs was launched in 2016.