Definition - In the context of SUMP, the term measure refers to a policy, campaign or project that is implemented to contribute to the achievement of the SUMP’s objectives and targets. The term “policy instrument” is sometimes used interchangeably with measure, to describe the specific means through which policies are implemented (e.g. lower bus fares, road pricing etc.). The range of measure types continues to expand and therefore categories have been devised to aid practitioners. To provide an illustration, the KonSULT Policy Guidebook and Measure Option Generator identifies six main categories of measures:
· Attitudinal and behavioural measures
· Information measures
· Management of the infrastructure
In order to achieve greater benefits than could be achieved by implementing one measure alone, it is possible to create packages of measures so that complementarity and synergies occur.
Attitudinal and behavioural measures
Attitudinal and behavioural measures is a collective term for a range of measures that promote sustainable mobility through management and marketing approaches rather than the provision of physical “hard” infrastructure. They are also referred to as demand management, mobility management measures and “soft” measures.
Information provision is a collective term for a series of measures that enable travellers to make more informed decisions about how, when, where and whether to travel.
Infrastructure measures is a collective term referring to a series of “hard” infrastructure investments to provide new walking, cycling, public transport or road infrastructure.
Land use measures
Land use measures is a collective term referring to a series of policy measure that can be pursued within a SUMP (and within the public authority’s related spatial/land use plan) that can contribute to the regular use and attractiveness of sustainable transport modes.
Management of the infrastructure
This category contains a broad range of measures relating to the physical modification and enhancement of existing infrastructure, as well as improvements to the way existing infrastructure is managed and operated.
Pricing instruments is a collective term for a series of policies and measures intended to influence transport choices through financial incentives and disincentives. The KonSULT tool provides information and guidance relating to the following pricing instruments: vehicle ownership taxes, fuel taxes, parking charges, road user charging, fare levels, fare structures, concessionary fares and integrated ticketing.
Relevance to SUMP - The development of an effective package of measures is at the core of the SUMP approach, which encourages a balanced development of all transport modes through actions that include technical, promotional and marketing-based measures as well as infrastructure. Well selected (packages of) measures are needed to ensure that the SUMP objectives and targets are met, but too often cities limit themselves to familiar solutions. It is therefore recommended that cities undertake a structured, but open-minded approach to appraising which measures will be most effective in a particular context. The measure categories and measures set out in the KonSULT Policy Guidebook and Measure Option Generator provide a good resource when identifying and weighing the advantages and disadvantages of possible solutions.
Source: ITS Leeds KonSULT (online)