Experience shows that isolated measures can only have a limited impact, while packages of measures can make use of synergies and reinforce each other. Therefore it is crucial to draw conclusions from the analysis of options in form of meaningful combined packages of measures. Furthermore the packages finally selected should also strive for integration of transport modes (intermodality), with land-use planning and other sectoral planning activities (e.g. environmental, health or economic measures).
- Select best options in form of packages of measures.
- Ensure exploitation of synergies between measures.
- Ensure integration of transport modes (intermodality).
- Strive for integration with land-use planning and further sectoral planning activities.
- Identify measures which contribute to meeting multiple objectives.
- Group measures into packages of measures to benefit from synergies and increase their effectiveness (see CiViTAS-CATALIST typology in > Activity 6.3).
- Ensure that intermodality is taken into account. This includes links to the long-distance transport networks such as the TEN-T network. (See LINK Project on Passenger Intermodality for detailed recommendations on the “last urban mile connection”: www.transport-research.info/web/projects/project_details.cfm?id=11355).
- Check proposed transport and mobility measures regarding integration with land-use planning.
- Integrate the measures where possible with further sectoral planning activities (e.g. environmental, health or economic measures).
- Make a proposal for final selection of measures and discuss with key stakeholders.
Timing and coordination
- In parallel to > Activities 6.1 ‘Identify the most effective measures’, > 6.2 Learn from others experience’ and > 6.3 Consider best value for money
- Before Step 7. Agree on clear responsibilities and allocate funding.
|Effective packages of measures and possible synergies identified.|
|Packages of measures checked with an eye to integration with land-use planning and other sectoral planning activities.|
|Set of packages of measures selected as input for discussion on final selection and action and budget plan (> Activity 7.2).|
London, England: Congestion charging – the need for an integrated approach
A congestion charging scheme – such as the one implemented in London - illustrates the need for an integrated approach. This powerful measure to contain road traffic by charging users directly modifies the composition and volume of traffic, and hence affects pollutant emissions as well as noise levels. But if implemented as a stand-alone measure, the expected magnitude of reduction effects would be rather small. If combined with urban planning and design, public transport improvement and promotion, parking management, low emission zones and exemptions for “clean” vehicles, these measures tend to mutually reinforce, catalyse and complement the effects on pollutant, CO2 and noise emissions. At the same time, negative effects such as congestion in adjacent areas or social equality of access and mobility need to be addressed by compensatory measures. The exact definition of the zone perimeter plays a significant role here.
Source: PILOT manual 2007 – full version,
Krakow, Poland: Packaging of measures in CiViTAS
A Transportation Master Plan was approved by the City Council in 2005. Its main goal is efficient, safe, economic and environmentally friendly transport of passengers and goods. This policy requested the implementation of a bouquet of comprehensive and coordinated measures and activities. Within the CiViTAS CARAVEL project (2005-2009), 18 complementary measures were implemented in total, which brought an improved quality to Krakow’s transport system.
Krakow is one of the biggest cities in Poland. The maintenance and reinforcement of the metropolitan functions and – at the same time – a real improvement of the quality of life of Krakow’s residents became the challenges of city development in the early years of the new millennium.
A Transportation Master Plan was approved by the City Council in 2005. Its main goal was efficient, safe, economic and environmentally friendly transport of passengers and goods. This policy requested the implementation of a bouquet of comprehensive and coordinated measures and activities. Within the CiViTAS CARAVEL project (2005-2009), 18 complementary measures were implemented in total, which brought an improved quality to Krakow’s transport system.
These measures included introduction of less polluting vehicles in public transport (PT), installation of separated traffic lanes, priority systems, safe access to PT stops, attractive and informative audio-visual passenger information, new PT services (e.g. demand-responsive transport in low-density areas, integrated ticketing between independent operators, bike carriers on buses, public bikes), access restrictions for cars and delivery services to the historic centre. These hard measures were accompanied by a series of soft measures targeted to specific user groups (the university and its students and employees, citizens, young people, shopkeepers) such as carpooling, car sharing, marketing and promotion events, incentives, training, public meetings.
A carrot-and-stick policy aimed at discouraging the use of the private car while at the same time encouraging the use of PT or other transport modes through better, safer, more affordable and more reliable and attractive urban transport offers and services. The measures were all interrelated and were not implemented in isolation. A core project team supervised the progress and ensured an ongoing exchange between the measures and the stakeholders concerned. This project team was also responsible for communication and promotion. Despite some opposition from shopkeepers and administrations, the public accepted this city policy and this project thanks to a committed Lord Mayor and a strong project team. The project and the related measures came on the citizens’ agenda, were widely discussed and permanently visible to the public through the CiViTAS CARAVEL tram, posters and logos, public meetings and events (European Mobility Week), incentives and gadgets.
Source: Rupprecht Consult based on CiViTAS, www.civitas-initiative.org/city_sheet.phtml?lan=en&id=2