By Admin Eltis / Updated: 28 May 2019

Definition – A referenduminfo-icon is a general vote by the citizens of a city, region or nation on a single political question which has been referred to them for direct decision.

Relevance to SUMP – Public authorities may decide that decisions relating to the SUMP strategyinfo-icon or specific measures should be put directly in the hands of citizens by holding a democratic referendum. A referendum may therefore form part of a SUMP communication and engagementinfo-icon strategy, which would represent a powerful form of participationinfo-icon. Within the theoretical framework of levels of public participation (Arnstein, 1969), a referendum would be a form of citizeninfo-icon control. Examples of where referenda have been held in relation to a mobilityinfo-icon planning issue are the Stockholm, Edinburgh and Manchester congestion charging proposals.

Source: Oxford Dictionaries (online); Arnstein, 1969

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