This report provides an overview of the main EU Research and Innovation (R&I) actions for and with cities, promoted both at the European and international level to foster sustainable urban development. In addition, it presents a detailed overview of budget of Horizon 2020 and the past three research Framework Programmes (FP7, FP6 and FP5) committed to city-related projects.
Although European roads still claim too many fatalities and seriously injured, the long-term safety trend has been positive. Among others, improved vehicle safety standards since the late 1990s have played an important role.
Improvements in the safety of new vehicles in Europe have been driven by mandatory EU and UNECE safety requirements for new vehicles - and by Euro NCAP, a voluntary consumer-testing organisation that carries out its own tests of many vehicles that sell in large numbers and awards safety ratings to them.
The annual TERM reports prepared by EEA help to track environmental performance of transport in the EEA member countries. The report uses a set of indicators that are regularly updated.
Cycling as a mode of transport can be seen as a driver of jobs and economic activity just as much as cars and public transport vehicles. The European Cyclists' Federation has produced a report which examines the contribution that cycling makes to economic and job growth across the EU, ranging from bicycle manufacture and repair, to cycle tourism, to the economic impact of public bike-sharing schemes.
Increasing the numbers of people who choose to cycle rather than drive is a well-established method to reduce traffic congestion and improve air quality. The European Cyclists' Federation has produced a report which examines the evolution of air pollution concentrations in five European cities (Antwerp, London, Nantes, Seville and Thessaloniki), concluding that cycling is an effective tool to reduce urban air pollution when combined with other sustainable mobility measures.
The Transport section of the Eurostat Regional Yearbook gives information on road, rail, air and maritime transport within EU countries and others such as Norway, Iceland and Turkey. Particular data is given with respect to passenger numbers, injuries in road accidents, rates of motorisation and lengths/densities of networks.
In addition to their annual Transport and Environment Reporting Mechanism (TERM) report, the EEA also regularly publish reports on topics of interest. Recent publications have focussed on the following topics:
- Appropriate taxes and incentives do affect purchases of new cars
- Monitoring CO2 emissions from new passenger cars and vans in 2016
- Monitoring progress of Europe's transport sector towards its environment, health and climate objectives
- Managing exposure to noise in Europe
- Electric vehicles in Europe
The European Environment Agency's TERM 4 is a comparison of mean and maximum urban traffic and background emissions of NO2 and PM10. Its intention is to show the influence of traffic on air quality. The data is collected from Airbase and is updated annually.
The UNECE Working Party on Transport Statistics (WP.6) is an intergovernmental body dealing with the development of appropriate methodologies and terminology for the harmonization of statistics as well as the collection of data from Member States and the dissemination of this data.
Data in the publications cover transport activity, transport equipment and transport infrastructure by mode (rail, road, inland waterway, maritime, intermodal and oil pipeline). General information on population, energy consumption, transport emissions and on road traffic accidents are also provided.
This Flash Eurobarometer, “Quality of life in European cities” (No 419), was conducted at the request of the Directorate-General for Regional and Urban Policy to get a snapshot of people’s opinions on a range of urban issues. Earlier surveys were conducted in 2004, 2006, 2009 and 2012.