MPK, the public transport operator in Krakow, has developed the strategy for fleet renewal and exchange. The strategy assumes a substitution of old buses by ecological vehicles constructed in accordance with official Euro environmental standards. It is planned to introduce CNG technology into bus fleet of PT operator.
Objectives / Innovative Aspects- To research and test new solutions in the field of alternative fuels and innovative feed engine system for the purpose of its further introduction into bus fleet on a bigger scale.
- To purchase and test CNG buses (up to 15 vehicles).
- To gain and test a hybrid bus.
- To withdraw by the end of the year 2007 old buses which are not constructed in accordance with environmental Euro norms and substitute them for environment friendly vehicles
- To decrease noise emitted by PT vehicles.
The MeasureThe measure focuses on the development of long term strategy for bus fleet exchange and transition towards clean vehicles. It is planned to conduct a comprehensive analysis of economical and exploitation factors connected to daily operation of different types of clean vehicles. The results of the study will be a good research base for further decisions about the purchase of new ecological bus fleet.
Implementation Status- The new type of bus - Jelcz M121 CNG was officially presented to citizens of Krakow, politicians and local media in November 2006.
- 5 new CNG vehicles were delivered in late December 2006 and early January 2007. Than exploitations tests started.
- In summer 2007 hybrid and ethanol-driven buses were tested
- In 2008 MPK (PT operator) bought new 45 Euro V buses and started their exploitation.
Results- The CNG-driven bus is 20-25% more expensive than similar diesel vehicle. And even lower CNG fuel price cannot compensate high purchase and transition costs and make the investment cost-effective.The decision on introduction of CNG technology always depends on local conditions and factors. Basing on the Krakow experience one can recommend the CNG buses only if:
- an operator has own gas filling station of good capacity,
- maintenance facilities are proper to serve CNG vehicles with respect to all safety and security rules,
- terms of contract with CNG provider ensure seamless fuel delivery at good price.