The Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality and EMBARQ conducted a major inventory of transport based emissions to establish a baseline measurement of transport emissions in Istanbul, providing city officials with accurate data for the development of effective air quality and transportation policies.
Background & Objectives
Home to 12-15 million people, according to different sources, and with over 600 new vehicles adding to the traffic jams every day, Istanbul’s problem of traffic congestion has come to the forefront as the number one issue facing the city. With increased congestion come increased transport-based emissions.
It was with this in mind that EMBARQ and the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality developed the Clean Fuels/Clean Vehicles Project, the goal of which is the development of cost effective transport-based emission mitigation measures. The first phase of the project was the formulation of a transport emissions inventory that quantified transport-based emissions and identified the key pollutants and their sources.
The Istanbul Municipality continually measures and publishes the ambient air quality in the city. However, without sector-based information on the sources of pollution it is difficult to develop effective air quality policies that target the highest polluters, and thus come up with the most cost-effective solutions. By carrying out a transport emissions inventory of public transport vehicles (buses, mini-buses, taxis, etc.), each group can understand the level of its contribution to pollution in the city, and thus can contribute to the development of mitigation measures.
The inventory consisted of three separate studies:
- a vehicle activity study to identify traffic patterns and driver behaviour, and to define the dynamic fleet on the streets of Istanbul;
- measurement of emissions from the diesel-powered fleet; and
- measurement of emissions from the petrol-powered fleet.
In addition to the above data, a key output of the emissions inventory was the development of the International Sustainable Systems Research Centre (ISSRC) International Vehicle Emissions (IVE) model for Istanbul, which combines the measured values of fuel use and pollutant emissions for each vehicle type and fuel.
The project has determined transport based emissions on a grams/kilometre basis; as well as the key pollutants and their sources by vehicle type and fuel. Furthermore, by using the IVE model, it has been predicted that transport emissions in Istanbul will double by 2015 if the city continues along its current path.
As a follow-up, a workshop was held with over 50 key stakeholder organisations. During a brainstorming session, the workshop participants generated nearly 300 ideas for reducing transport emissions, and EMBARQ is now developing pilot projects from these ideas for implementation in Istanbul. As a result of the project, the city will have a portfolio of tested emissions mitigation measures from which to develop air quality and transport emissions policies and standards.
Istanbul Municipality website air quality web page (in Turkish):