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Shared Space Implementation Sonnenfelsplatz in Graz, Austria
Background & Objectives
Shared space is an urban road design and planning concept aimed at integrated use of public spaces by improving traffic-dominated public road space .The underlying philosophy assumes that the traffic space is over-regulated, as manifested, for example, in the proliferation of traffic signs. Instead of the dominant position of motor traffic, the aim is to create a balance between traffic as a whole and social life. Shared Space is based on the idea of mutual understanding and sharing the road space, by bringing kerbs and limiters down to road level and by doing without traffic lights, signs and lane markings with the right of way continuing to apply. The aim of these measures is to create intentional uncertainty, forcing road users to view the road space depending on the specific situation, among other things by establishing eye-contact with other road users. At the same time, the existence of a motorised and non-motorised traffic is considered as necessary.
This planning model was masterminded by the Dutchman Hans Monderman in the 1990s and is applied all over the world today. To quote Hans Monderman: “The structure of the space determines behaviour”. The layout and design of the setting, the traffic space, should enable the road user to recognise for him-/herself how to behave.
Initial situation of the place “Sonnenfelsplatz”:
The general refurbishment of the place “Sonnenfelsplatz” was an urgent necessary. A frequency of 15,000 cars per day, 3,400 pedestrians in peak period and 640 cyclists /hours used this area.
Start of the integrated planning processes – the “Charrette”
Planning of the first Shared Space square in Graz was performed by means of an innovative planning and participation procedure, a “Charrette” - a team-based concentrated, interdisciplinary planning process with active public participation. A team of planners consisting of architects, civil engineers, sociologists drew up a harmonised draft plan with citizens, stakeholders, politicians, transport companies and local authorities. In order to conduct the process, premises were rented nearby the planning area so that the planning team was able to work on this project on site. This active, transparent co-operation very quickly led to a draft plan for redeveloping Sonnenfelsplatz in one week that met with broad consensus among citizens and stakeholders. The procedure demonstrated that it is possible to shorten the draft planning stage considerably and, at the same time, achieve optimum participation of the public and key stakeholders.
With a public participation process it is not possible to reach all road users.>
The 'square' must speak for itself and influence the behaviour of all road users, including also those unfamiliar with Shared Space. For this innovative planning process “Charrette” the City of Graz and the planning team was awarded with an ÖGUT prize 2011 for participation and civic society’s involvement.
Shared Space and mobility-impaired people
Shared Space can sometimes be problematic, particularly for people with disabilities, specifically visually impaired people and blind people, because Shared Space is based upon interaction and eye-contact. This problem can be remedied with the aid of a tactile guide system and high-contrast surfaces integrated into the plan. The production of tactile plans available for each visual impaired person and trainings with mobile trainers are essential. Special mention should be made of the extremely positive opinion of visually impaired people regarding the draft. Wheelchair users, for their part, welcome the new concept doing away with kerbs, as they usually have to make lengthy detours to avoid them. All of these interests and needs must be taken into account from the outset in the integrated planning process.
It is assumed that people respond better to suggestions regarding space than to prohibitions. By removing the clear-cut division of traffic space, the aim is to give rise to a new sense of space that takes different aspects of urban planning into account. This will lead to new possibilities with regard to interaction between people, for example. Not regulating the space by means of separate traffic areas, ground markings and traffic signs provokes a subjective uncertainty in the road user, resulting in increased attention and perception and more social behaviour. Uncertainty leads to slower, appropriate driving speeds and, at the same time, to improved accident statistics (no serious accidents).The non-car-oriented design of the space and the greater mix and seating facilities lead to an improvement of spatial and social qualities and to longer dwell time, which means greater quality of life. The newly created space offers room for cafés, invites people to stroll, and offer an attractive shopping environment for the retail trade.
The Shared Space project Graz is part-financed by the European Union under the INTERREG IVC Programme - PIMMS transfer
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This Case Study is part of the European urban mobility and transport best practice collection from Eltis - www.eltis.org.