The online UK supermarket Ocado has been trialling delivering customers' orders directly to their homes using a self-driving electric van.
The last-mile delivery vehicle, called the CargoPod, was underway on the streets of the Royal Borough of Greenwich, London. Using a combination of cameras, sensors, and lasers placed around the vehicle, the onboard computer is able to find its way to its location. No GPS is used in its navigation.
Up to 128kg of goods can be carried at a time, and the vehicle has a top speed of 40 km/h, although it was limited to 8km/h during the tests.
The trial is the third of four taking place as part of the GATEway project (Greenwich Automated Transport Environment) that is seeking to ascertain "how automated vehicles can fit into our future urban mobility needs".
With much road infrastructure already in place, autonomous ground vehicles are considered to have a lower barrier to entry into the logistics and delivery sector than other potential methods, such as drones.
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