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EU legislation & policies
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EU official documents are rather diverse. Some are legislative and introduce an obligation for the Member States, while others are not. Below is a short explanation about the different types of document:

  • A Regulation is a binding legislative act. It must be applied in its entirety across the EU.
  • A Directive is a legislative act that sets out a goal that all EU countries must achieve. However, it is up to the individual countries to decide how.
  • A Decision is binding on those to whom it is addressed (e.g. an EU country or an individual company).
  • A Green Paper is a document published by the European Commission to stimulate discussion on given topics at European level. It invites the relevant parties (bodies or individuals) to participate in a consultation process and to debate on the basis of the proposals they put forward. Green Papers may give rise to legislative developments that are then outlined in White Papers.
  • A White Paper is a document containing proposals for community action in a specific area. In some cases it follows a Green Paper published to launch a consultation process at European level. When a White Paper is favourably received by the Council, it can lead to an action programme for the Union in the area concerned.
  • A Communication is a policy document with no mandatory authority. The Commission takes the initiative of publishing a Communication when it wishes to set out its own thinking on a topical issue. A Communication has no legal effect.
  • A Staff Working Document usually accompanies a Communication to dig deeper in a specific topic. Like a Communication, it has no legal effect.
  • A Recommendation is not binding. A Recommendation allows the institutions to make their views known and to suggest a line of action without imposing any legal obligation on those to whom it is addressed.
  • An Opinion is also not binding. It allows the institutions to make a statement without imposing any legal obligation on those to whom it is addressed.
  • A Non-Paper is a discussion document designed to stimulate debate on a particular issue without representing the official position of the institution which drafted them.

Intelligent Transport Services

Communication "Action plan for the deployment of Intelligent Transport Systems in Europe" COM(2008)0886

Commission Staff Working Document "Towards a roadmap for delivering EU-wide multimodal travel information, planning and ticketing services" SWD(2014)194

Directive 2010/40/EU on the framework for the deployment of Intelligent Transport Systems in the field of road transport and for interfaces with other modes of transport

Road Safety

Non-paper "Road safety planning, good practice examples from national road safety strategies in the EU"

Communication "Towards a European road safety area: policy orientations on road safety 2011-2020" COM(2010)389

  1. The Directive only applies mandatorily to motorways but the principles of the Directive are promoted as best practice for all road infrastructure management including inside urban areas.

  2. The legislation concerns the risks of collision between heavy vehicles and vulnerable road users (pedestrians and cyclists) which primarily is a concern inside urban areas.

Green vehicles & fuels

Commission Staff Working Document "Guidelines on financial incentives for clean and energy efficient vehicles" SWD(2013)27

The Clean Power for Transport package establishes that a mix of alternative fuels is necessary to break the transport sector's dependence on oil, and it introduces a legislative proposal for the deployment of an EU-wide recharging and refuelling network for electricity, hydrogen and natural gas.

Regulation (EU) No 510/2011 setting emission performance standards for new light commercial vehicles

  1. Amended by Regulation (EU) No 253/2014

Regulation (EU) No 63/2011 laying down detailed provisions for the application for a derogation from the specific CO 2 emission targets

Regulation (EU) No 1222/2009 on tyre Labelling with respect to fuel efficiency

Directive 2009/33/EC on Clean Vehicles

Regulation (EU) No 443/2009 setting emission performance standards for new passenger cars

Directive 2009/30/EC amending Directive 98/70/EC as regards the specification of petrol, diesel and gas-oil and introducing a mechanism to monitor and reduce greenhouse gas emissions

Regulation (EC) No 715/2007 on type approval of motor vehicles with respect to emissions from light passenger and commercial vehicles (Euro 5 and Euro 6) and on access to vehicle repair and maintenance information

  1. Regulation (EC) No 692/2008 amending Regulation (EC) No 715/2007 as regards type-approval requirements for motor vehicles fuelled by hydrogen and mixtures of hydrogen and natural gas

  2. Regulation (EU) No 630/2012 amending Regulation (EC) No 692/2008, as regards type-approval requirements for motor vehicles fuelled by hydrogen and mixtures of hydrogen and natural gas with respect to emissions

This Directive was amended a large number of times since 2007. Below are the most important amendments, but for completeness we refer the reader to  EUR-lex

  1. Regulation (EU) No 540/2014 on the sound level of motor vehicles and of replacement silencing systems amending Directive 2007/46/EC

  2. Regulation (EU) No 195/2013 amending Directive 2007/46/EC and Regulation (EC) 692/2008 as concerns innovative technologies for reducing CO2 emissions from light passenger and commercial vehicles

  3. Regulation (EC) No 79/2009 on type-approval of hydrogen-powered motor vehicles amending Directive 2007/46/EC

  4. Regulation (EU) No 406/2010 implementing Regulation (EC) No 79/2009 on type-approval of hydrogen-powered motor vehicles

  5. Regulation (EC) No 595/2009 on type-approval of motor vehicles and engines with respect to emissions from heavy duty vehicles (Euro VI) and on access to vehicle repair and maintenance information

Cycling & motorcycling

Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 on the approval and market surveillance of two- or three-wheel vehicles and quadricycles

  1. Regulation (EU) No 134/2014 supplementing Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 with regard to environmental and propulsion unit performance requirements and amending Annex V thereof

General on urban mobility

Transport White Paper COM (2011)144

Communication "A Sustainable Future for Transport" COM(2009)279

Green Paper "Towards a new culture for urban mobility"

Environment

Directive 2011/92/EU on Environmental Impact Assessment

Directive 2009/28/EC on Renewable Energy

  1. Amended by Regulation (EU) No 333/2014

Communication: Greening Transport COM(2008)433

Directive 2008/50/EC on Ambient Air Quality

  1. Decision 2011/850/EC on the implementation of Directive 2008/50/EC